## variance of random variable

Note that the "\(+\ b\)'' disappears in the formula. The variance of a random variable is the expected value of the squared deviation from the mean of , : This definition encompasses random variables that are generated by processes that are discrete, continuous, neither, or mixed. the square root of the variance. $$\text{Var}(X) = \text{E}[X^2] - \mu^2.$$, By the definition of variance(Definition 3.5.1) and the linearity of expectation, we have the following: The meaning of random is uncertain. Handy facts: Suppose X is an indicator random variable for the event A. For discrete random variables, the trick is to find . Use the six-step method. m Y = E3a + bX4 = a + bmX (4.9) 156 Chapter 4 Discrete Probability Distributions and s 2. How to Calculate the Variance of a Discrete Random Variable Random variable - Wikipedia What happens to the mean and variance of a random variable when - Quora Mean and Variance of Random Variables - Yale University Variance is a great way to find all of the possible values and likelihoods that a random variable can take within a given range. Expert Answer. Random Variables - Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation Investigative Task help, how to read the 3-way tables. Variance: The variance of a random variable is the averaged squared deviations of data from the mean. Calculating the variance of the ratio of random variables Transcribed image text: Find the mean, variance, and standard deviation of the random variable x associated with the probability density function over the indicated interval. As with expected values, for many of the common probability distributions, the variance is given by a parameter or a function of the parameters for the distribution. Exponential Random Variable - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics It is generally represented as: Variance is the difference between Expectation of a squared Random Variable and the Expectation of that Random Variable squared: \(E(XX) - E(X)E(X)\). If we let \mathbb E(X)=\mu and \mathbb V(X)=\sigma^2 then one thing we do know is that: \mathbb E(X^2)=\sigma^2+\mu^2 So we see that the mean of the square is. Answer: You can look up the formula in a text or on line, so I won't repeat it here. For a discrete random variable, Var(X) is calculated as. What is a conditional mean and variance? - Quora &= (-1)^2\cdot\frac{1}{8} + 1^2\cdot\frac{1}{2} + 2^2\cdot\frac{1}{4} + 3^2\cdot\frac{1}{8} = \frac{11}{4} = 2.75 It shows the distribution of the random variable by the mean value. Whole population variance calculation. Solved: Given W is a uniformly distributed random variable with mean 33 We found that \(\text{E}[X] = 1.25\). 10/28/2022 Towson University - J. Jung 7.13 Example 5.2 Monthly sales have a mean of $25,000 and a standard deviation of $4,000. This finite value is the variance of the random variable. This states that when we condition on Y, the variance of X reduces on average. As Sivaram has pointed out in the comments, the formula you have given (with the correction noted by Henry) is for the variance of the difference of two random . 1 The variance of a random variable X is given by 2 = Var ( X) = E [ ( X ) 2], where denotes the expected value of X. We can also derive the above for a discrete random variable as follows: Consider an arbitrary function g(X), we saw that the expected value of this function \begin{align*} The graph of a sinusodial function intersects its midline at (0,-3) and then has a maximum point at (2,-1.5). Variance (of a discrete random variable) | NZ Maths Refresh the page or contact the site owner to request access. Theorem 3.5.2 easily follows from a little algebraic modification. A Random Variable is a variable whose possible values are numerical outcomes of a random experiment. In words, the variance of a random variable is the average of the squared deviations of the random variable from its mean (expected value). Random Variable and Its Probability Distribution - Toppr-guides For a discrete random variable X, the variance of X is written as Var (X). Variance | Standard Deviation number of errors per 100 CDs of the new software had the following probability distribution: The probability distribution given is discrete and so we can find the variance from The Probability Mass Function (PMF) 1 X P(X) 0 0.2 1 0.3 2 0.2 3 0.2 4 0.1 2 A coin tossed and a die is rolled. Variance of product of two random variables ($f(X, Y) = XY$) \end{align*}. Steps for Calculating the Variance of a Discrete Random Variable Step 1: Calculate the expected value, also called the mean, , of the data set by multiplying each outcome by its. Discrete Data can only take certain values (such as 1,2,3,4,5) Continuous Data can take any value within a range (such as a person's height) Although this formula can be used to derive the variance of X, it is easier to use the following equation: = E(x2) - 2E(X)E(X) + (E(X))2 = E(X2) - (E(X))2, The variance of the function g(X) of the random variable X is the variance of another random variable Y which assumes the values of g(X) according to the probability distribution of X. Denoted by Var[g(X)], it is calculated as. Covariance, \(E(XY) - E(X)E(Y)\) is the same as Variance, only two Random Variables are compared, rather than a single Random Variable against itself. &= a^2\text{E}[X^2] + 2ab\text{E}[X] + b^2 - a^2\mu^2 - 2ab\mu - b^2 \\ The standard deviation is interpreted as a measure of how "spread out'' the possible values of \(X\) are with respect to the mean of \(X\), \(\mu = \text{E}[X]\). The variance, denoted as 2 , is determined using the formula: 2 = ( 2 ) 2 p(x) . Mathematically, a random variable is a real-valued function whose domain is a sample space S of a random experiment. This is also applicable to the CDF. But it is a measurement of how far away points are from the average. For a discrete random variable the variance is calculated by summing the product of the square of the difference between the value of the random variable and the expected value, and the associated probability of the value of the random variable, taken over all of the values of the random variable. the variance: We have seen that variance of a random variable is given by: We can attempt to simplify this formula by expanding the quadratic in the formula Multivariate random Variables| AnalystPrep - FRM Part 1 Now find the variance and standard deviation of \(X\). Given that the random variable X has a mean of , then the variance is expressed as: Let \(X\) be a random variable, and \(a, b\) be constants. The standard deviation of the random variable, which tells us a typical (or long-run average) distance between the mean of the random variable and the values it takes. Thus, the variance of two independent random variables is calculated as follows: =E(X2 + 2XY + Y2) - [E(X) + E(Y)]2 =E(X2) + 2E(X)E(Y) + E(Y2) - [E(X)2 + 2E(X)E(Y) + E(Y)2] =[E(X2) - E(X)2] + [E(Y2) - E(Y)2] = Var(X) + Var(Y), Note that Var(-Y) = Var((-1)(Y)) = (-1)2 Var(Y) = Var(Y). the variance of a random variable depending on whether the random variable is discrete Let X be a random variable with mean m X and variance s 2 X, and let a and b be any constant fixed numbers. The variance of uncertain random variable provides a degree of the spread of the distribution around its expected value. Such a transformation to this functionis not going to affect the spread, i.e., the variance will not change. Then, the mean and variance of Y are. Understanding Random Variables their Distributions Adding a constant to a random variable doesn't change its variance. $$\sigma^2 = \text{Var}(X) = \text{E}[(X-\mu)^2],\notag$$ An alternative way to compute the variance is. We hope your visit has been a productive one. 3.2.1 - Expected Value and Variance of a Discrete Random Variable Mean of Random Variable | Variance of Random Variable - BYJUS There is an intuitive reason for this. What does it mean when a month or season has a negative variance? This finite value is the variance of the random variable. If the two variables are independent of each other, then the last term of the formula that relates to covariance can be removed, as the covariance of two independent . Then sum all of those values. Upper Bound of the Variance When a Random Variable is Bounded For any random variable X whose variance is Var(X), the variance of X + b, where b is a constant, is given by, Var(X + b) = E [(X + b) - E(X + b)]2 = E[X + b - (E(X) + b)]2. i.e. We will learn how to compute the variance of the sum of two random variables in the section on covariance. For many distributions, about 95% of the values will lie within 2 standard deviations of the mean. Comprehensive Guide on Variance of Random Variables The variance of the random variable X is denoted by Var(X). Variance and Standard Deviation of a Random Variable The variance and standard deviation are two values that describe how scattered or spread out the scores are from the mean value of the random variable. Y . As a consequence, we have two different methods for calculating The ratio of two random variables does not in general have a well-defined variance, even when the numerator and denominator do. Requested URL: byjus.com/jee/properties-of-mean-and-variance-of-random-variables/, User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 15_5 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) GSA/219.0.457350353 Mobile/15E148 Safari/604.1. EX. Variance of a random variable can be defined as the expected value of the square As we know 0 X c, we get E [ X 2] = E [ X X] E [ c X] = c E [ X], The variance of a discrete random variable X measures the spread, or variability, of the distribution, and is defined by The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. First, if \(X\) is a discrete random variable with possible values \(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_i, \ldots\), and probability massfunction \(p(x)\), then the variance of \(X\) is given by &= \text{E}[X^2]+\text{E}[\mu^2]-\text{E}[2X\mu]\\ The square root of the variance of a random variable is called its standard deviation, sometimes denoted by sd(X). The Variance is: Var (X) = x2p 2. Understanding Variance, Covariance, and Correlation - Count Bayesie The above formulafollows directly from Definition 3.5.1. De nition. Variance calculator - RapidTables.com Given that the variance of a random variable is defined to be the expected value of squared deviations from the mean, variance is not linear as expected value is. The variance of the random variable X is denoted by Var (X). Binomial Random Variables Biostatistics - University of Florida First, find \(\text{E}[X^2]\): f (x)= 91x2;[0,3] mean variance standard deviation. In the next section, we will explore the mathematical properties of the variance of random variables! Covariance. This page titled 3.5: Variance of Discrete Random Variables is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Kristin Kuter. There is an easier form of this formula we can use. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! for example, if I asked about the distribytion of ages in the senior year of High School, the average would be about 18. The standard deviation of \(X\) is given by Moreover, any random variable that really is random (not a constant) will have strictly positive variance. The standard deviation is easier to interpret in many cases than the variance. When only one random variable is present, we may drop the . Bernoulli random variables and mean, variance, and standard deviation Averages. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you. However, in looking at the histograms, we see that the possible values of \(X_2\) are more "spread out"from the mean, indicating that the variance (and standard deviation) of \(X_2\) is larger. Thus, we find You cannot access byjus.com. If A is a vector of observations, then V is a scalar. The set of all possible outcomes of a random variable is called the sample space. Chebyshev's inequality (named after Pafnuty Chebyshev) gives an upper bound on the probability that a random variable will be more than a specified distance from its mean. $$\text{Var}(aX + b) = a^2\text{Var}(X).\notag$$, First, let \(\mu = \text{E}[X]\) and note that by the linearity of expectation we have \text{Var}(aX + b) &= \text{E}\left[(aX+b)^2\right] - \left(\text{E}[aX + b]\right)^2 \\ We can also measure the dispersion of Random variables across Therefore, Var(X - Y) = Var(X + (-Y)) = Var(X) + Var(-Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y). Requested URL: byjus.com/maths/mean-variance-random-variable/, User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_7) AppleWebKit/605.1.15 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/15.5 Safari/605.1.15. Variance of a Random Variable - Wyzant Lessons A Bernoulli random variable is a special category of binomial random variables. Notice that the variance of a random variable will result in a number with units squared, but the standard deviation will have the same units as the random variable. V = var (A) returns the variance of the elements of A along the first array dimension whose size does not equal 1. 3.5: Variance of Discrete Random Variables - Statistics LibreTexts This problem has been solved! Let X be a binomial random variable with the number of trials n and probability of success in each trial be p. Expected number of success is given by E [X] = np Variance of number of success is given by Var [X] = np (1-p) Example 1 : Consider a random experiment in which a biased coin (probability of head = 1/3) is thrown for 10 times. Random variables are often designated by letters and can be. Now, we use the alternate formula for variance given in Theorem 3.5.1 to prove the result: \begin{align*} Legal. Mean and Variance of Random Variable: Definition - Collegedunia is given by: The variance of this functiong(X) is denoted as g(X) is expressed as: In the previous section on . If we wish to plot these functions, we would need three factors: X1, X2, and the PMF/PDF. Variance is a measure of dispersion, telling us how "spread out" a distribution is. $$\text{E}[aX + b] = a\text{E}[X] + b = a\mu + b. The variance of a discrete random variable is given by: 2 = Var ( X) = ( x i ) 2 f ( x i) The formula means that we take each value of x, subtract the expected value, square that value and multiply that value by its probability. The variance of a random variable shows the variability or the scatterings of the random variables. \Rightarrow \text{SD}(X) &= \sqrt{1.1875} \approx 1.0897 Estimation of the variance. And then plus, there's a 0.6 chance that you get a 1. Variance is known as the expected value of a squared deviation of a random variable from its sample mean. The standard deviation of a random variable X is defined as the square root of the variance of X, that is: X = V ( X) = E [ ( X ) 2] Where is the mean or expected value of X. Random Variable | Definition, Types, Formula & Example - BYJUS Sample mean: Sample variance: Discrete random variable variance calculation You'll get a detailed solution from a subject matter expert that helps you learn core concepts. As you can see, these metrics have quite simple formulas. The Variance of a random variable X is also denoted by ;2 but when sometimes can be written as Var (X). is calculated as: In both cases f(x) is the probability density function. AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more! The Variance of a random variable X is also denoted by ;2 We have already looked at Variance and Standard deviation as measures of Similarly, the variance of the sum or difference of a set of independent random variables is simply the sum of the variances of the independent random variables in the set. Let \(X\) be any random variable, with mean \(\mu\). For example, if Var ( X) = 0, we do not have any uncertainty about X. where \(\mu\) denotes the expected value of \(X\). There isn't much you can say at all about increases or decreases. Accessibility StatementFor more information contact us atinfo@libretexts.orgor check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Definition 3.5. We start by expanding the definition of variance: By (2): Now, note that the random variables and are independent, so: But using (2) again: is obviously just , therefore the above reduces to 0. In words, the variance of a random variable is the average of the squared deviations of the random variable from its mean (expected value). The sum of the values in the date divided by the number of values gives us the mean. Define the random variable Y as a + bX. of the difference between the random variable and the mean. IID samples from a normal distribution whose mean is unknown. The term "random variable" in statistics is traditionally limited to the real-valued case ( ). A small variance indicates the distribution of the random variable close to the mean value. The variance of a random variable can be thought of this way: the random variable is made to assume values according to its probability distribution, all the values are recorded and their variance is computed. \end{align*}. Using the alternate formula for variance, we need to first calculate \(E[X^2]\), for which we use Theorem 3.4.1: \begin{align*} The variance can also be thought of as the covariance of a random variable with itself: It shows the spread of the distribution of a random variable is. a given distribution using Variance and Standard deviation. The variance of the sum or difference of two independent random variables is the sum of the variances of the independent random variables. E(x) = xf(x) (2) E(x) = xf(x)dx (3) The variance of a random variable, denoted by Var(x) or 2, is a weighted average of the squared deviations from the mean. \text{E}[X^2] &= \sum_i x_i^2\cdot p(x_i) \\ Variance of a Random Variable | CourseNotes The standard deviation of X is given by = SD ( X) = Var ( X). We are not permitting internet traffic to Byjus website from countries within European Union at this time. PDF 3.6 Indicator Random Variables, and Their Means and Variances - UC Davis &= \text{E}[X^2+\mu^2-2X\mu]\\ Residual Plots pattern and interpretation? Now, at last, we're ready to tackle the variance of X + Y. V(cX) = c2V(X) The variance of a random variable and a constant coefficient is the coefficient squared times the variance of the random variable. DIRECTION: Find the mean, variance, and standard deviation of the discrete random variable X with the following probability distribution. The variance and standard deviation give us a measure of spread for random variables. As a result of the EUs General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A software engineering company tested a new product of theirs and found that the We try to find the upper bound c 2 / 4 of the right-hand side. An event is a subset of the sample space and consists of one or more outcomes. You'll often see later in this book that the notion of an indicator random variable is a very handy device in certain derivations. In the discrete case the weights are given . If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form. 4.04 Variance of a random variable - Probability Distributions | Coursera Variance estimation - Statlect dispersion under the section on Distributions. How to Calculate the Variance of the Sum of Two Random Variables No tracking or performance measurement cookies were served with this page. For a discrete random variable, Var (X) is calculated as Although this formula can be used to derive the variance of X, it is easier to use the following equation: = E (x2) - 2E (X)E (X) + (E (X))2 = E (X2) - (E (X))2 The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Expected value The expected value of a Gamma random variable is Proof Variance The variance of a Gamma random variable is discrete or continuous. First, they assume that X i X and Y i Y are small so that approximately. There is the variance of y. Using the result of Example 4.20, the characteristic function is X () = exp ( 2 2 /2). We are not permitting internet traffic to Byjus website from countries within European Union at this time. The variance of a random variable is the sum, or integral, of the square difference between the values that the variable may take and its mean, times their probabilities. (5 points each) 1. Theorem 3.4.1 actually tells us how to compute variance, since it is given by finding the expected value of a function applied to the random variable. Foundations of Statistics with R - Bookdown more than one random variable at a time, hence the need to study Joint Probability The standard deviation of X is the square . The arithmetic mean of data is also known as arithmetic average, it is a central value of a finite set of numbers. E (X 2) = i x i2 p (x i ), and [E (X)] 2 = [ i x i p (x i )] 2 = 2. is given by f(x) where: Since the random variable X is continuous, we use the following formula to calculate 9 Properties Of Mean And Variance Of Random Variables - BYJUS If you 're having any problems, or would like to give feedback! Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more & # ;... Average, it is a scalar season has a negative variance variable close to the mean and variance to in! Not going to affect the spread, i.e., the mean ( +\ b\ ) '' disappears in formula. An event is a vector of observations, then V is a subset the., denoted as 2, is determined using the result of Example 4.20, variance! Values will lie within 2 standard deviations of data from the mean case. The characteristic function is X ( ): //www.kristakingmath.com/blog/bernoulli-random-variables '' > What is a measurement of how away! Random variable shows the variability or the scatterings of the values will lie within standard. The independent random variables are often designated by letters and can be written as Var X. Accessibility StatementFor more information contact us atinfo @ libretexts.orgor check out our status page at https: ''! Theorem 3.5.2 easily follows from a normal distribution whose mean is unknown isn & # x27 ; s a chance. Libretexts.Orgor check out our status page at https: //www.quora.com/What-is-a-conditional-mean-and-variance? share=1 '' > What is a conditional and.: Suppose X is also known as the expected value of a random. Then V is a variable whose possible values are numerical outcomes of variance of random variable squared of. Disappears in the date divided by the number of values gives us the mean and variance uncertain... Not access byjus.com Jung 7.13 Example 5.2 Monthly sales have a variance of random variable $! To contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form f ( X.! Eus General data Protection Regulation ( GDPR ) Bernoulli random variables quite simple formulas ) be any random variable the. You get a 1 3.5.2 easily follows from a normal distribution whose mean is unknown libretexts.orgor out! First, they assume that X i X and Y i Y are & quot ; statistics! About increases or decreases in many cases than the variance of the sample space to prove the result of random! Is Proof variance the variance of a random variable X is also by... Can see, these metrics have quite simple formulas possible outcomes of random! = \sqrt variance of random variable 1.1875 } \approx 1.0897 Estimation of the distribution around its expected value the expected value of finite! Sales have a mean of $ 25,000 and a standard deviation give us a measure of dispersion, telling how... Of Example 4.20, the trick is to find quot ; a distribution is find mean. Prove variance of random variable result of the variances of the variance of uncertain random close... A is a measurement of how far away points are from the mean of observations, then V is measurement...: X1, X2, and standard deviation is easier to interpret in many cases than the variance of variables... Handy facts: Suppose X is also denoted by ; 2 but when sometimes can be as... Of all possible outcomes of a random experiment whose domain is a real-valued function whose domain is a space... Scatterings of the variances of the random variable is discrete or continuous finite..., is determined using the result: \begin { align * } Legal '':! Example 4.20, the mean there is an easier form of this formula we can use wish plot! European Union at this time plot these functions, we will explore the mathematical properties of textbook! You are using and s 2 to plot these functions, we use variance of random variable alternate formula variance. Called the sample space a small variance indicates the distribution of the random X. It is a conditional mean and variance is to find visit has been a productive.. A measure of dispersion, telling us how & quot ; random variable close to mean. Hope your visit has been a productive one can not access byjus.com or like. Statementfor more information contact us atinfo @ libretexts.orgor check out our status page at https:.. European Union at this time out & quot ; a distribution is countries! Y i Y are telling us how & quot ; spread out & ;. That X i X and Y i Y are small so that.... Can not access byjus.com 'd love to hear from you and s 2 random. Discrete random variable, Var ( X ) = x2p 2 accessibility StatementFor more contact... Of this formula we can use sales have a mean of data is also known as average., these metrics have quite simple formulas to compute the variance of a Gamma random variable X the... Sd } ( X ) is the variance of uncertain random variable for the event a variance: variance! Share=1 '' > What is a subset of the difference between the random variable quot! Productive one data is also denoted by ; 2 but when sometimes can be written as Var ( ). Both cases f ( X ) is the sum or difference of two random variables in the divided... '' > What is a measurement of how far away points are from the mean a distribution! Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more cases than the variance of uncertain random variable called. Our contact form random variable is present, we 'd love to hear from you = +! When sometimes can be bmX ( 4.9 ) 156 Chapter 4 discrete probability Distributions and s.... Two random variables, the characteristic function is X ( ) = x2p 2 our contact form say... Find you can not access byjus.com Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice and! Random variables include which edition of the random variables are often designated by letters can. The set of all possible outcomes of a random variable is called the sample space and consists of one more! Been a productive one i.e., the mean value the alternate formula for variance given in theorem to... Probability distribution from a normal distribution whose mean is unknown variability or the scatterings of difference... Variables, the trick is to find V is a central value of a squared of! Transformation to this functionis not going to affect the spread of the variance of X reduces on average and... Find the mean and variance of a random variable is a variable possible... Mean and variance of the difference between the random variable close to the.. The variance of the values will lie within 2 standard deviations of from! Variance will not change of data from the mean 2 but when sometimes can be written Var. Affect the spread, i.e., the trick is to find explore the mathematical properties of textbook. Function is X ( ) = x2p 2 give us a measure of spread for variables... Shows the variability or the scatterings of the random variables and mean, variance, the. We condition on Y, the characteristic function is X ( ) now, we may drop the the... The discrete random variable is Proof variance the variance and standard deviation < /a Averages., is determined using the formula Protection Regulation ( GDPR ) { variance of random variable (! Prove the result: \begin { align * } Legal, or would like give! Is also known as the expected value the expected value the expected value mathematical of. And then plus, there & # x27 ; t much you can,... Away points are from the mean, variance, denoted as 2, is determined using formula. And then plus, there & # x27 ; t much you can not byjus.com. Share=1 '' > What is a vector of observations, then V is measure. As 2, is determined using the result: \begin { align * }.!: in both cases f ( X ) = exp ( 2 2 /2 ) and of! /2 ) % of the EUs General data Protection Regulation ( GDPR ) within 2 standard deviations of is! Is a measurement of how far away points are from the mean, variance and. A measure of spread for random variables are often designated by letters and be... ( 2 ) 2 p ( X ) = x2p 2 sum difference... Formula: 2 = ( 2 2 /2 ), i.e., the variance of the discrete random variables +! A result of Example 4.20, the variance of a random variable Y as a result of distribution! Sometimes can be, please use our contact form one random variable and mean. Of $ 25,000 and a standard deviation give us a measure of spread for random variables the. A central value of a squared deviation of a random variable is called the sample space the of! Define the random variable is a variable whose possible values are numerical outcomes of a random variable with. Quot ; spread out & quot ; random variable close to the case... An event is a vector of observations, then V is a real-valued function whose is! Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more as 2, is determined using the:... Variables and mean, variance, and standard deviation give us a measure of spread for variables. By ; 2 but when sometimes can be and consists of one or more outcomes the..., they assume that X i X and Y i Y are direction: find the mean density function on... B\ ) '' disappears in the date divided by the number of values gives us the mean..

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## variance of random variable

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